作者:小角蛙 浏览: 发表时间:2019-01-09 19:15:07

狮子和老虎                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                老虎  狮子简笔画



Tiger versus lion

Historically, a comparison of the tiger (Panthera tigris) versus the lion (Panthera leo)[3][4] has been a popular topic of discussion by hunters,[5][6] naturalists,[7] artists, and poets, and continues to inspire the popular imagination.[8][9][10][11] In the past, lions and tigers reportedly competed in the wilderness,[12][13] where their ranges overlapped in Eurasia.[3][14] The most common reported circumstance of their meeting is in captivity,[15] either deliberately[9][16] or accidentally.[12][17]  说明:这些括号数字是资料的引用。 

       从历史上看,老虎(Panthera tigris)和狮子(Panthera leo)的对比一直是猎人、自然学家、艺术家和诗人讨论的热门话题,并继续激发着人们的想象力。他们见面最常见的情况是被囚禁,要么是故意要么是意外。

Physical and behavioral comparison   身体和行为比较

Generally, in terms of dimensions of the body and weight, the modern tiger[19] and lion[20] are the two largest species of the genus Panthera and the cat family. Variations in opinions and measurements exist for them, especially across different populations or subspecies.[18][21] Apart from that, similarities and differences exist for other characteristics, such as the lengths of their skulls.[3]

Both the lion and the tiger have fearsome reputations in their native areas in relation to prey, sympatric predators, and people. Both may prey on humans, though rates of man-eating tend to be higher for the tiger.[6][22] General differences in behaviour:

  • The lion is usually a highly social animal while the tiger is solitary. It is agreed that the tiger is faster, smarter and more ferocious, and that keepers of captive tigers must constantly fear sudden attack.[23]
  • Lions may roam in prides of up to 30 individuals headed by a mature male or group of related males, until an incumbent male is killed or driven away by a new male leader. The majority of single roaming lions tend to be males preparing for maturation and assimilation with a new or existing pride. While male lions are generally larger and stronger than female lions, it is the close-knit female pride alliance that typically hunts and provides for the pride. By contrast, tigers are often solitary,[23] though they do socialize.[4] During a mating tryst, a tiger and tigress are hostile to other creatures, with the same applying to lions.[21]

More specifically, however, the Asiatic lion has similarities and differences with both its African relative and the tiger. For example, Asiatic lions are social like their African relatives, and females may be promiscuous.[24] However, the structures of the prides of African and Asiatic lions vary,[25] with male Asiatic lions usually associating with females during times of mating,[26][27] similar to tigers,[4][21] and whereas Asiatic lionesses and tigresses may practice promiscuity to defend their cubs, African lionesses are believed not to do it for that purpose.[28]



       狮子会以成熟的雄性或相关雄性性群体为首的30个狮群集体生活,直到一头在职雄狮被新的雄狮领袖杀死或赶走。大多数单身的流浪狮子都是雄性,它们正在为新的或现存的狮群做准备。虽然雄狮通常比雌狮更大、更强壮,但         通常是紧密的雌狮捕猎并提供食物。相比之下,老虎通常是独居的,虽然它们也会社交。在一次交配约会中,老虎和母老虎对其他动物怀有敌意,狮子也是如此。


Coexistence in the Eurasian wilderness   欧亚荒野的共存

Currently, India is the only country confirmed to have both wild lions and tigers.[4][18][29] Though they do not share the same territory, they did in the past,[12][30][21][31] and there is a project mentioned below that could lead to their meeting in the wild.[32][33][34]

Before the end of the 20th Century, lions[20][35] and tigers[19][36] had also occurred in other Asian[2] or Eurasian nations, including Iran.[4][14][29][21] As such, there is a word for 'Lion',[3][4][14][35] which can also mean 'Tiger',[21][37] and is used in Iran, South Asia and other areas, that is 'Sher' or 'Shir' (Persianشیر‎),[38] and its significance is discussed below. The lion is also of cultural importance in the Far East,[39][40] including the land[41][42] of the Indochinese tiger,[19] but according to authors such as Reginald Innes Pocock (1939)[21] and Nowell and Jackson (1996),[4] the lion did not naturally occur there.

According to Colin Tudge (2011), given that both cats hunt large herbivores, it is likely that they had been in competition in Asia. Despite their social nature, lions might have competed with tigers on an individual basis, as they would with each other.[2]

Apart from the possibility of competition, there are legends of Asiatic lions and tigers breeding to produce hybrid offspring, which would be ligers or tigons.[43][44][45][46][47] From the fossil record, besides genetics,[4][36][48] it would appear that the modern lion and tiger were present in Eurasia since the Pleistocene, when now-extinct relatives also existed there.[3][20][19] Additionally, in the days before Indian Independence, the Maharaja of Gwalior introduced African lions into his area, which is a habitat for Bengal tigers.[49]


      在20世纪末之前,狮子和老虎也发生在其他亚洲或欧亚国家,包括伊朗。因此,“狮子”,中有一个词也可以表示“老虎”,在伊朗,被用于南亚等地区,也就是“Sher”或“SHIR”(波斯语:شی),   其 意义将在下面讨论。狮子在远东地区也具有重要的文化意义,包括印度支那虎的领地,但根据作者如雷金纳德Innes的波科克(1939)和诺埃尔和Jackson( 1996),狮子并没有自然地出现在那里。

       根据Colin Tudge(2011)的研究,鉴于这两只猫科动物都捕杀了大型食草动物,很可能它们已经在亚洲竞争。尽管狮子具有社会性,但它们可能会以个体为基础与老虎竞争,就像它们会彼此竞争一样。


The possibility of conflict, between lions and tigers, had been raised in relation to India's Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project, which was meant to introduce the Gir Forest's lions to another reserve which is considered to be within the former range of the Indian lion, that is Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh,[33] before December 2017.[50][51]Kuno was reported to contain some tigers that came from Ranthambore Park, including one called 'T-38'.[12][34] Concerns were raised that the co-presence of lions and tigers would "trigger frequent clashes."[52] The University of Minnesota's Lion Research Project describes one reason to delay the introduction of lions to Kuno Palpur, is the fear that tigers living there would kill the incoming lions. In a one-on-one encounter, it is believed that a Bengal tiger could beat an Indian lion, given its weight advantage.[12][32]Despite the fact that the habitats of Indian lions and tigers are similar means that they both live in conditions that favor solitary hunters of prey,[53] these lions are social like their African relatives,[25] and may form fighting groups, whereas tigers are usually solitary, and it is believed that a group of lions (2 – 3 males) or lionesses (2 – 4 females) is more than a match for a single tiger or tigress (see § Temperament). Therefore, it would appear that in order for Asiatic lions to survive in an area with Bengal tigers, the lions would have to be translocated there as intact groups rather than as individuals.[12]

Reginald Innes Pocock (1939) mentioned that some people had the opinion that the tiger played a role in the near-extinction of the Indian lion, but he dismissed this view as 'fanciful'. According to him, there was evidence that tigers inhabited the Subcontinent, before lions. The tigers likely entered Northern India from the eastern end of the Himalayas, through Burma, and started spreading throughout the area, before the lions likely entered Northern India from Balochistan or Persia, and spread to places like the Bengal and the Nerbudda River. Because of that, before the presence of man could limit the spread of lions, tigers reached parts of India that lions did not reach. However, the presence of tigers throughout India did not stop the spread of lions there, in the first place, so Pocock said that it is unlikely that Bengal tigers played a role, significant or subordinate, in the near-extinction of the Indian lion, rather, that man was responsible for it,[21] as was the case with the decline in tigers' numbers.[3][4][19][21][31] As such, Pocock thought that it was unlikely that serious competition between them regularly occurred, and that even if Indian lions and tigers met, the chance that they would fight for survival was as good as the chance that they would choose to avoid each other, and that their chances of success, if they were to clash, were as good as each other's.[21]

      狮子与老虎之间发生冲突的可能性与印度的亚洲狮子重新引入项目有关,该项目旨在将吉尔森林的狮子引入另一个被认为属于印度狮子前范围内的保护区,即2017年12月之前,Madhya Pradesh的Kuno野生动物保护区,据报道,Kuno包含一些来自Ranthambore公园的老虎,其中包括一只叫做“T-38”的老虎。有人担心狮子和老虎的共存将“引发频繁的冲突”。所述的明尼苏达大学狮子研究项目描述了推迟向库诺帕尔普尔引进狮子的一个原因,就是担心生活在那里的老虎会杀死传入的狮子。在一对一的遭遇中,人们认为,鉴于其重量优势,孟加拉虎可以击败印度狮子。尽管印度狮子和老虎的栖息地相似,但它们都生活在有利于孤独的猎人的条件下,这些狮子像非洲亲属一样具有社交性,并且可能形成战斗群体,而老虎通常是孤独的,并相信一群,狮子雄性(2 - 3)雌狮(2 - 4雌性)匹配个老虎或一母老虎。因此,亚洲狮要想在孟加拉虎生活的地区生存下来,就必须作为完整的群体而不是个体引进到那里。


    Reginald Innes Pocock(1939)(英国动物学家的名字)提到,有些人认为老虎在印度狮子濒临灭绝的过程中发挥了作用,但他认为这种观点是“异想天开”。根据他的说法,有证据表明老虎比狮子先在次大陆定居。老虎很可能从喜马拉雅山脉的东端进入印度北部,经过缅甸,并开始在整个地区传播,然后狮子可能从俾路支省或波斯进入印度北部,然后传播到孟加拉河和涅尔布塔河等地。正因为如此,在人类的存在限制狮子的传播之前,老虎已经到达了狮子无法到达的印度部分地区。然而,在印度老虎的存在并没有阻止扩散的狮子,首先,所以可以排除说,孟加拉虎不太可能发挥了作用,在印度灭绝的狮子,相反,就像虎数量下降的情况也是一样道理。因此,可以认为它们之间是不可能的,经常发生严重的竞争,,即使印度狮子和老虎相遇,他们为生存而战的机会与他们选择相互避免的机会一样,如果他们要发生冲突,他们成功的机会差不多。

Observed fights 观察到的战斗

In the circuses of Ancient Rome, exotic beasts were commonly pitted against each other,[16] including Barbary lions[4][54][55] and tigers.[56] A mosaic in the House of the Faun in Pompeii shows a fight between a lion and a tiger.[57] There are different accounts of which of these animals won victory. Although lions and tigers can be kept together in harmony in captivity,[58] fatal conflicts have also been recorded.[9][59][60][61]

In addition to historical recordings, clashes between lions and tigers were reported or even caught on camera,[62] in the 19th and 20th centuries. It was not always clear which species regularly beat the other, according to Doctor Packer (2015).[12][13]


     除了历史记录,在19世纪和20世纪,狮子和老虎之间的冲突被报道,甚至被摄像机捕捉到。根据dr Packer(2015)的研究,我们并不总是清楚哪种物种经常打败其他物种

In captivity    

  • Roman Emperor Titus had Bengal tigers compelled to fight African lions, and the tigers always beat the lions.[63]
  • In July 1808, Sylvanus Urban said that Mr Bolton had a friend who claimed to have seen a fight between the lion and tiger at a circus in Verona. Though the tiger had attacked first, it yielded to the stronger lion.[64]
  • In 1830, a tiger attacked a lion at a menagerie in TurinRome. Despite having attacked first, the lion got it on its back, and used its jaws to hold the tiger's throat. The tiger died after that.[65]
  • Clark (1838) said that a British officer, who resided many years at Sierra Leone, saw many fights between lions and tigers, and that the tiger 'universally' won.[30][a]
  • In 1857, an 18-month-old tiger at the Bromwich Zoo broke into the cage of an adult lion. The pair fought, and the young tiger ripped the lion's stomach. The lion died minutes later.[66]
  • According to Porter (1894), a tiger called 'Gunga', which belonged to the King of Oude, killed thirty lions, and destroyed another after being transferred to the zoological garden in London.[6]
  • According to the Gettysburg Compiler and The Baltimore Sun (1899), towards the end of the 19th century in India, the Gaekwad of Baroda, that is Sayajirao III,[67][68] arranged a fight in an amphitheater, between a Barbary lion called 'Atlas', from the Atlas Mountains between Algeria and Morocco, and a man-eating Bengal tiger from the Indian region of Shimla, both large and hungry (with their diets reduced before the fight), before an audience of thousands, instead of between an Indian lion and the tiger, as Indian lions were believed to be no match for Bengal tigers.[b] The tiger was more than 10 feet (3.0 metres) long, over 4 feet (120 centimetres) feet at the shoulder, had strong shoulders and long teeth and claws, and was agile. The lion looked taller at the head than the tiger, and had a large mane, legs and paws. The tiger was seen as "the personification of graceful strength and supple energy," whereas the lion was seen as the "embodiment of massive power and adamantine muscle".[61] In the fight, both cats sustained injuries, and although the tiger sometimes retreated from Atlas, it would come back to fight it, and in the end, managed to scratch Atlas to death, though Atlas pushed it off in one final move, before dying. The Gaekwad agreed to pay 37,000 rupees, accepted that the tiger was the "King of the Cat Family," decreed that Atlas' body be given a Royal burial, and that the tiger should have a "cage of honour" in the menagerie of Baroda, and decided to prepare the tiger for a battle with a Sierran grizzly bear weighing more than 1,500 lb (680 kilograms). The battle was to happen after the tiger recovered from its wounds.[9][61]
  • At the Coney Island animal show in 1909, a performing lion attacked a chained tiger by leaping through the air, landing on the tiger's back. Though hampered by the heavy neck chain fastened to the iron bars of the arena, the tiger was more than a match for the lion and mangled it to death.[69]
  • In May 1914, at New York's Bronx Zoo, the barrier between the cages of Rajah, an 8-year-old Bengal tiger, and Huerte, a Nubian lion which was 2[70][71] or 3 years old, and had been sick for some time, got opened in an "unaccountable manner." For the first few minutes, the more agile Huerte appeared to be winning, but when it aimed for its injured opponent's neck, about an hour into the fight, Rajah aimed for its nape. Not only did Rajah manage to bite Huerte's nape, but it also broke Huerte's back, thus slaughtering it.[72][73]
  • In 1934, a fully grown African lion killed a mature Bengal tiger a short time after these circus animals were unloaded from the train, before trainers could separate them.[17]
  • Bert Nelson (1938) said that in Chicago, when 20 lions and tigers were mixed together for an act at a circus, a fight occurred, lasting for about 10 minutes. No fatalities were mentioned, but Nelson said that order was 'restored' when tigers used escape doors to flee.[74]
  • At South Perth Zoo, 1949, in a three-minute fight between a lion and a tiger, the lion killed the tiger. The fight occurred when the tiger put his head through a connecting slide. The lion caught the tiger by the throat, and, dragging it through the opening, killed it before the keepers arrived.[75]
  • By 21 February 1951, Beatty had seen 50 tigers killed by lions throughout his career.[76][77]
  • In September 1951, at a corporation zoo in Madras, India, an eighteen-year-old tiger called 'Vikram' entered the cage of a seven-year-old lion called 'Leo', and got into a fight with it. Badly mauled, including in the femur, Vikram retreated into its cage, and despite receiving medical attention, died.[78]
  • An Indian Prince organised a filmed fight in a deep pit in the compound of his palace. The lion had killed the tiger, according to Kailash Sankhala (1978).[53][17][59][53][75]
  • In March 2011, a Bengal tiger at the Ankara Zoo passed through a gap, between its cage and that of a lion, and killed it with a single paw swipe.[79] "The tiger severed the lion's jugular vein in a single stroke with its paw, leaving the animal dying in a pool of blood," officials said.

人工饲养   红色的老虎绿色的狮子

     罗马皇帝 泰特斯曾让孟加拉虎被迫与非洲狮子作战,老虎总是击败狮子。

     1808年7月,Sylvanus Urban说博尔顿先生有一位朋友声称在维罗纳的一个马戏团里看到了狮子和老虎之间的斗争。虽然老虎先攻击了它,但它却屈服于强壮的狮子。





     按照葛底斯堡编译器巴尔的摩太阳报(1899年),对在19世纪末印度Gaekwad巴罗达,即Sayajirao III爵士,安排在竞技场比赛,一个巴巴里狮子来自阿尔及利亚和摩洛哥之间的阿特拉斯山脉的 “ 阿特拉斯 ”,以及来自印度西姆拉地区的食人孟加拉虎,它们又大又饿(在打斗前它们的食量减少了),观众有几千人,而不是在印度狮子和老虎之间,因为印度狮子被认为不是孟加拉虎的对手,所以比赛是巴巴里狮和孟加拉虎。老虎超过10英尺(3.0米),肩部超过4英尺(120厘米),肩膀强壮,牙齿和爪子长,并且敏捷。狮子的头部看起来比老虎高,并且有一个大的鬃毛,腿和爪子。老虎被视为“优雅力量和柔软能量的化身”,而狮子被视为“大力量和坚定肌肉的化身”。在战斗中,两只猫科动物都受伤了,虽然老虎有时会从阿特拉斯撤退,但它会回来对抗它,最后设法将阿特拉斯划伤至死,尽管阿特拉斯在最后一次行动中将其推倒,然后死亡。Gaekwad同意支付37,000 卢比,接受老虎是“ 猫家族之王”,并宣布阿特拉斯的尸体被授予皇家葬礼,并且老虎应该在巴罗达的动物园中拥有“荣誉笼” 并且决定准备老虎与一只体重超过1,500磅(680公斤)的Sierran 灰熊战斗。这场战斗是在老虎恢复从伤口后发生的。




    伯特·纳尔逊(Bert Nelson, 1938)说,在芝加哥,20只狮子和老虎在一个马戏团里混在一起表演时,发生了一场打斗,持续了大约10分钟。报道没有提到死亡人数,但纳尔逊说,当老虎利用逃生门逃跑时,秩序得到了“恢复”。






    一位印度王子在他宫殿的一个深坑中组织了一场拍摄的战斗。根据Kailash Sankhala(1978)的说法,狮子杀死了老虎。



Professional opinions

Favoring the tiger

  • John Varty, owner of the Londolozi Reserve in South Africa, said, "People always ask me which one is bigger? If a tiger and a lion had a fight, which one would win? Well, I've seen tigers crunch up a full-grown leopard tortoise like it was nothing. And lions try, but they just don't get it right. If there's a fight, the tiger will win, every time."[90]
  • The animal rescue organisation Big Cat Rescue of Tampa, Florida answered, "While it would depend on the size, age, and aggressiveness of the specific animals involved, generally tigers have a significant advantage."[91]
  • The conservation charity Save China's Tigers stated "Recent research indicates that the tiger is indeed stronger than the lion in terms of physical strength. Lions hunt in prides, so it would be in a group and the tiger as a solitary creature so it would be on its own. A tiger is generally physically larger than a lion. Most experts would favor a Siberian and Bengal tiger over an African lion."[92]
  • John Smith Clarke, a British lion tamer, said, in a lecture on the fight between a tiger and a lion given to the Glasgow Zoological Society, while showing the actual fight on the screen, "in 100 cases out of 100 the tiger would always beat the lion. It was far more agile, it was not so clumsy in its movements, it was equally strong, it was equally armed, but it fought in a different way. The tiger very often fought rolling on its back and held the lion in its grip until it defeated him."[93]
  • The BBC (2016), in a three-round study of agility, strength and intelligence, favored the tiger in the case of intelligence, due to the time spent for a particular challenge.[94]
  • National Geographic Channel's documentary The Last Lions of Asia mentioned that a Bengal tiger had a weight advantage of 50 kilograms (110 lb) over an Asiatic lion, and could kill a lone lion in a fight.[32]

Favoring the lion

  • Clyde Beatty, the animal trainer and performer who owned several tigers, lions, hyenas, and other exotic animals, believed that in nine out of ten times, "a full-grown lion would whip a full-grown tiger". He mentioned that since he first began mixing the animals, 25 of his tigers (two of them being Siberian tigers, the rest of them being Bengal tigers) were killed in the circus arena, but there was not a single lion casualty.[59]
  • Renowned naturalist and conservationist of India, Kailash Sankhala wrote in his book Tiger that the tiger would be unable to get close to lion's vital joints because of his thick mane, and that the tiger would be vulnerable to the lion. He mentioned that once an Indian prince organized a fight in which the lion killed the tiger, and opined that "a tiger is no match for even single lion of equal strength".[53]


  • Carl Hagenbeck, a trainer from Hamburg, said that the lion and tiger were alike in "good temper and reliability". He cited the example of a lion being trained for a month to do tricks, and of a tiger taking five weeks to do so.



      南非Londolozi保护区的主人John Varty说:“人们总是问我哪个更大?如果老虎和狮子打架,谁会赢?嗯,我见过老虎嚼碎一只成年豹龟。狮子们也在尝试,但他们就是做错咬不碎。如果要打架,老虎每次都会赢。”



      英国驯狮师约翰·史密斯·克拉克(John Smith Clarke)在给格拉斯哥动物学会(Glasgow Zoological Society)的一场关于老虎和狮子搏斗的演讲中说,“在屏幕上100个案例中,老虎总是能打败狮子。”它灵活得多,动作也不那么笨拙,同样强壮,同样全副武装,但战斗方式不同。老虎经常用背部打滚,并抓住狮子它直到它击败了他。





      印度著名的自然学家和自然资源保护者Kailash Sankhala在他的书《老虎》中写道,因为鬃毛太厚,老虎无法靠近狮子的重要关节,老虎很容易受到狮子的攻击。他提到,有一次,一位印度王子组织了一场狮子杀死老虎的战斗,他认为“一只老虎是无法与一只同等力量的狮子匹敌的”。



     来自汉堡的驯兽师卡尔•哈根贝克(Carl Hagenbeck)表示,狮子和老虎都“脾气好,可靠”。他举了一个例子,一只狮子被训练了一个月来表演特技,一只老虎则花了五个星期。


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